Woodworkers usually make joints to build excellent projects, and without joints, projects become almost impossible to make. Besides, joints are essential to a project, and the more skilled you are in making joints, the higher the level of your woodworking skills. Furthermore, you can enhance the strength and durability of joints by using wood glue.
Wood joints, however, can be categorized into stressed and unstressed joints, and if you’re new to woodworking, you might be at a loss as to the difference between these two joints. Of course, if you’re a grammarian, you already know the difference between these two joints, and if you continue reading, you will further understand the stark contrast between these two types of joints.
Stressed Joints Vs. Unstressed Joints
If you are stressed, it means you are under pressure or tension. Similarly, if a joint is stressed, it means it is under pressure or load. It also signifies that it carries a large load that is dynamic or moving. Thus, the joints experience the usual tension or stress due to this dynamic load. When making stressed joints, you should apply glue and clamp the wood and let it dry for 24 hours under the clamp’s pressure.
On the other hand, unstressed joints will not carry a dynamic load. Instead, it bears a small and static load. Besides, it will be best to clamp the unstressed joint for approximately half an hour.
What is Stressed Joint?
As mentioned above, stressed joints carry a high amount of load, and this load is dynamic. The stressed joint has many applications, including its use in making tables, chairs, shelves, and floors. These applications, of course, require the capacity to withstand high tension and pressure over time.
The chair, for example, allows a person to sit and relax. Yet, if its joints are not stressed, the joints will give way, and the chair will collapse, causing possible injuries to the one sitting on it. Thus, stress joints are designed to support huge amounts of force and must be strong.
You must do the stressed joints properly and let them dry to make them more robust than the fibers of the wood. Examples of stress joints are box joints and mortise and tenon joints.
Furniture and applications that must support and bear high levels of dynamic stress must be solid and sturdy without compromising their looks. So, if you intend to build furniture like a table or chair, you must ensure that you do the stress joints well.
What is an Unstressed Joint?
The unstressed joint carries a minimal static load. Thus, you don’t need to make it very strong like the stressed joint because there is no demand for this joint to support a high load. This joint gets designed to carry a minimum static load, meaning it is not moving or entails less movement.
You may forgo wood glue when making unstressed joints. Yet, many experts recommend supplementing unstressed joints with adhesive or fasteners. Besides, gluing or fastening them ensures no accidental failure with the unstressed joints.
After gluing, you don’t need to clamp the unstressed joints for long. Thirty minutes would do. Furthermore, you can use unstressed joints when making window panels and frames.
Unstressed joints have decorative applications. Examples of unstressed joints include miter joints and but joints. You can use Titebond Polyurethane glue to glue unstressed joints. Then, clamp them and let them fully cure for six hours.
The drying time, however, may vary depending on several factors like humidity level, temperature, and the quality of wood you use. You can use unstressed joints on applications like making window panels and frames, picture frames, boxes, tabletops, and crates.
Main Differences Between Stressed and Unstressed Joints
To further understand stressed and unstressed joints, it will be best to know the significant differences between these two types of joints. Below are their main differences:
When doing woodworking, you always want to make your work durable because you want it to last and not cause injury to other people. Thus, it will be best if you decide between using stressed or unstressed joints when building something.
Of course, stressed joints are more durable than unstressed joints. Thus, you would opt for stressed joints in projects like chairs and tables because these furniture pieces support dynamic loads. The dynamic loads may vary from time to time, but as a woodworker, you expect these pieces of furniture to sustain whatever load is placed on them.
Woodworking projects like window panels and frames only support a little load. Picture frames, likewise, don’t carry much load. As such, you can use unstressed joints to build these projects. So, obviously, between stressed and unstressed joints, the more durable is the stressed joint.
The stronger the joints, the more reliable the project would be. Thus, when planning a project, you project your mind to the future, imagining how much load your project will carry. If your project is a chair, you imagine the maximum load that would sit on that chair. So, you don’t want optimize your chair project for such a load. Thus, you would use stressed joints to make your chairs.
In projects like picture frames, however, you expect no one to hang on your picture frame. Besides, no one will sit on your picture frame or use it as support for standing or sitting. As such, you will only use unstressed joints to make it. So, between stressed and unstressed joints, the surefire winner when it comes to strength is the stressed joints.
Level of Difficulty
Joints vary in strength and durability. They also vary in the level of difficulty of making them. Thus, if you’re a beginner in woodworking, you will usually shy away from dovetail joints, though you are enamored by these joints. Similarly, when planning a project, consider the level of difficulty of making a joint.
The stressed joints are usually more elaborately wrought. They must be stronger than the unstressed joints. As such, you will exert more time and effort in making them.
First, you need to cut them precisely to make them work. So, if you make mortise and tenon joints, you need to precisely make them and fit like jigsaw puzzles. Besides, you must bolster these joints by gluing the tenon and mortise together. Then, you must clamp them for a day or twenty-four hours and let them dry well.
On the other hand, if you would build a picture frame, you don’t need an elaborate joint to finish this project. Besides, you don’t need to clamp the joints for longer. You also do not need to dry the glue longer. Thus, between the stressed and unstressed joints, you will have a more stressful woodworking experience with the stressed joints.
It is not enough to make joints. You must enhance the strength of the joints by gluing them. When adequately glued, the joints become more robust than the wood fibers. Thus, gluing joints is critical to the durability and strength of your projects. The glues that are usually used on the wood are transparent. Hence, you will not see them after applying them to the joints.
Furthermore, it isn’t enough to apply glue on the joined surfaces of the wood. To ensure that the joints get properly wrought, you must clamp the wood pieces together to ensure they attach well.
If you would glue unstressed joints, you only need to clamp the joints for half an hour. But if you would glue stressed joints, you must clamp the pieces for twenty-four hours to ensure that the pieces get glued properly.
Appearance and Aesthetic
When planning a woodworking project, you project your mind into the future and imagine how your project would look. The reason is one aspect of woodworking is the ability to make aesthetically pleasing projects. Thus, when planning which joints to employ, you must consider how the joints would look. If you’re making a chair, you want the joints to be as flawless and inconspicuous as possible.
Stressed joints, of course, prioritizes durability and strength over aesthetics. As such, aesthetics is only second in importance to durability. Unstressed joints, on the other hand, don’t prioritize strength. It values more the aesthetic aspect of the joints. So, it is usually seamless and pleasant to look at. So, when it comes to appearance, the unstressed joints win over stressed joints.
Frequently Asked Questions
Aside from knowing the main differences between stressed and unstressed joints, it will also help if you are cognizant of the following FAQs, for they may also be the questions playing on in your mind:
Can You Make Stressed Joints Aesthetically Pleasing?
Yes, no one can stop you from turning a stressed joint into a beautiful joint. In fact, in many classical woodworks in China and Japan, you will see elaborate stressed joints that have withstood the test of time. So, it is possible to make stressed joints beautiful. Besides, your level of expertise is seen in how you make stressed joints attractive.
How Long Should You Dry Wood Glue?
You can let wood glue dry for half an hour to one hour. Then let it cure for a day. Curing wood glue allows chemical change to occur. Thus, the adhesive and the pieces are fully bonded when it cures.
How Can You Remove the Glue that Squeezes Out of the Joined Surface?
You can use a chisel to remove the excess glue squeezed out of the joined pieces. Simply press down on the joint and scrape the excess glue. Then, wipe the residue using a damp towel. You can employ this trick when the glue has already hardened.
What Glue Should You Use for Joints?
It will help to use glues designed for tightening joints. Titebond, for example, is an excellent glue for joints. You can also consider Gorilla Glue which is also strong. It will be best to opt for waterproof adhesives for outdoor applications.
One of the main factors that make your project great is the kind of joints you employ when doing your projects. The joints determine whether your project can withstand the test of time. If you use the wrong type of joints for a project, you might ruin your project. Besides, you jeopardize the safety of those who will use your woodworking projects.
Thus, the type of joints you will use is a crucial factor when building a project. Of course, you want your project to look good. But looking good is only one factor. You also need to ensure your project can sustain loads, whether this load is a dynamic or static load.
Jason is a 40-year-old woodworker, carpenter and author who have been involved in the woodworking and woodcraft industry with 17 years of experience. He is expertise in technical aspects, woodcraft and furniture building projects.