Wood joinery is a wood joining technique that woodworker applied to install and join pieces of wood or lumber together. It is an essential part of the woodworking process in order to make great woodwork. There are different types of wood joinery out there.
The type of wood joint to use depends on the woodworking project you are working on. Remember, there are a dozen types of wood joinery that you can try, but knowing which one to use and when to use it is very crucial.
For your next project, here are some of the popular types that you can try. Again, pick the one that will suit your next project perfectly!
Different Types of Woodworking Joints & Its Uses/Applications
Woodworkers plan on what woodworking joints to use for their projects to ensure stability and toughness. The more complicated it is, the better for its durability. Let us look into the different types of woodworking joints from the most basic to the more complex.
Butt joint means butting into two pieces of wood together. It is one of the easiest woodworking joints to try. It is easy to do, but it is a weak type of joint. To make it stronger, you need to add some reinforcement to the joint. It uses glue to join the woods together.
Of all the woodworking joints, the Butt Joint is the most basic and straightforward. One end of a piece of wood is butted against another end using mechanical fasteners. Due to its form (right angle or square depending on where you look at it), it is also considered one of the weakest joints in construction. Some would often use reinforcement to make it stronger. It has many uses, but woodworkers mostly used this joinery for platform framing, wall framing, or cabinet making.
Simple woodwork projects like hanging wall decors use this type. Do it if you are placing light objects on top of it though. You have to consider the type of glue to use as well. Don’t use this type of wood joint if you are making a book cabinet – it will easily give out.
This type of joint is more reliable than the butt joint. It uses oval-shaped pieces of dried and compressed woods like beech. In this type, you use a biscuit-shaped wood to join two joints or matching mortises. The biscuit joint provides flexibility for the two mortises, yet the flexibility will depend on the glue-up.
To use a biscuit joint, you have to insert the biscuit joint on both mortises. The distance must be the same for both mortises, and you must mark it from the face of the woods. This is the crucial part. As for the width, you can just make necessary adjustments and move the alignment as needed.
Using a biscuit joint can mean imperfect alignment. This type of joint requires a lot of effort and work, as well. You have to keep on cutting the mortises so you can insert the biscuits perfectly.
For a strong joint, you can do a bridle joint. It follows the principle of the mortise and tenon joint, among the strongest joints in woodworking. Basically, you cut a tenon on the end of your first wood. Now you cut a mortise on the other wood. When you combine them together, it gives each other strong support.
This type of joint doesn’t require too much glue. Once connected, it will form a corner like the ones you see in upright rails or table legs that are made of wood or lumber. This type of joint is great because it creates very stable woodwork. It would be best if you used a mechanical pin or fastener to make the joint stronger.
There are different types of bridle joints, such as the T-bridle, where you have to attach wood to the middle part of another wood or lumber.
This woodworking joint is mostly used in roof construction and referred to as the bird’s beak cut due to its small triangular shape. It is found on the bottom of the rafter and provides a smooth flat area which the rafter can rely on to attach itself to the wall top plate solidly.
On the triangular shape, the vertical cut attached to the exterior of the wall is called the “heel cut,” and the horizontal cut where the rafter lays upon is called the “seat cut.” Woodworkers follow a general rule, which is never cut more than 1/3 of the depth of the rafter when making a birdsmouth to sustain structural stability and integrity.
Cross Lap Joint
This joinery is also known as overlapping joints in which two long-grain wood faces are joined in the middle of the wood instead of having them together at the end. Each half of the two boards is removed, and they overlap at the cross-section. Each wood board has two shoulders and one cheek having the same measurement so they would fit perfectly when joined. It creates an illusion that two pieces of wood continuously slipped through one another magically. Some carpenters prefer to use this type of woodworking joint for internal cabinet framing, decks, boxes, and cross-bracing for houses or buildings.
Many carpenters consider this as one of the toughest woodworking joints and also one of the easiest to create. Some people call this housing or trench joint.
One piece of wood has a three-sided channel that was cut across the grain in which another piece of wood can fit into. It is mostly used in woodworking projects, including bookcases and cabinets where there are shelves that fit into one side of the board. They are also used as dividers or partitions in a drawer that provides sheer strength as the piece of wood is being held on three sides.
Dovetail Wood Joint
Those traditionalist woodworkers prefer using Dovetail Wood Joint as it does not need any mechanical fastener to have them joined. However, it isn’t easy to perfect each fit if you are not a true craftsman.
A dovetail joint has two parts, namely pins and tails. It was named as such due to its resemblance to the tail of a dove. It is some sort of a box joint in which the fingers are fitted together through the use of diagonal cuts. One workpiece has the tails, and the other opposite workpiece has the pins. When these two wood boards are joined together, it creates a strong resistance that is quite impossible to separate in one direction. To ensure that it would not be pulled apart from another direction, some woodworkers would add glue to intensify its interlocking strength.
A finger joint is a type of woodworking joinery, which is also known as a comb joint, and it is considered as one of the most popular joints used by carpenters. It is similar to that of a dovetail joint but with a slight difference. Instead of using angled pins, this joint uses square pins. While it also does not require the use of any mechanical fastener to join the pieces together, it relies heavily on glue to ensure it does not fall apart. It does not offer the same interlocking strength that the dovetail can provide.
It is sometimes confused with a box joint as it is similar, but the box joints are used primarily for box-like frames or box corner projects only. When one is to look into the joined workpiece, the cross-section is quite similar to interlocking fingers between two hands, hence the name.
Half Lap Joint
Carpenters would often resort to using the half-lap joint whenever they lack longer wood planks. While it is not as strong as the other woodworking joints, it is still popularly used by many as it is easy to create. Not all of those large beams you often see in house or building frames were made of just one long timber, but most likely, they were made of two or more connecting wood pieces.
It is the same as the cross lap joint, but instead of joining in the middle of the plank, it is done at the end of each piece. The wood pieces to be joined together should have the same measurement of thickness, so when half of the thickness is removed, they can fit perfectly together. They are mostly used for temporary projects as they can be easily assembled and dismantled. Instead of using screws or wood glue, nuts, and bolts are the go-to connecting tools to avoid damaging the wood pieces when they need to be separated. However, they can also be used for permanent woodworking projects such as cabinetry by reinforcing it with glue, dowels, or other fixed mechanical fasteners.
These are also called knock-down fittings that are easy to put together using basic carpentry tools, including a screwdriver, hammer, and drill. This type of woodworking joint refers to the bracket you see mostly on cupboards, cabinets, worktops, and any flat pack furniture for easy storage and transport. It is an easy way of joining materials quickly without using either glue or clamps. This can be temporary, as it can easily be dismantled or fixed as permanent.
Here are some of the most popular knock-down joinery styles:
Two-Block Fitting, also known as Lok-Joints:
This uses bolts and pins to attach the bracket made of plastic to the wood. The bolt goes into the first hole of a piece and then into the thread of the second hole of another piece. When the bolt is screwed tightly, it pushes the two pieces together. The pins, on the other hand, helps in making sure that the Fitting does not twist. It can easily be dismantled if need be without damaging the material.
Plastic Corner Block:
It is also called Fixit Blocks, which is normally used on kitchen cabinets. The bracket or corner block is pressed on two wood pieces and attached through the use of screws. It can be permanently fixed into the wood but can also be dismantled by putting out the screw with a screwdriver.
This bracket or joint is made of plastic, and screws are used to attach it to the wood by passing through four holes. Those four screws will securely hold all sides at each corner. Just like the other two knock-down fittings, this one can also be used permanently without worrying about its durability, but it can also be removed easily when its purpose has been served.
The best way to describe Miter Joint is to look at a frame of a painting. This joint is made of two wood pieces that are both cuts at the corners at a certain angle, mostly at 45-degree. When putting together, it forms a corner of the frame. It is similar to a butt joint but cut differently and has a stronger finish since there is a larger area for flue attachment.
Visually, it presents an aesthetically pleasing result, which is why it is used for framing paintings or photographs. It can also be used on the outside door corners as well as in decorative window frames. While it is stronger than butt joints, it is also considered a weak joint.
To counter this problem, woodworkers would use a thin slice of wood, which is called a spline, and it is inserted into a slot to strengthen the joint. The spline can either be perpendicular to the joined corners, or it runs the same length of both the joined wood pieces.
Mortise and Tenon Woodworking Joints
This woodworking joint is considered one of the toughest joints out there. The mortise and tenon joint has been used for many decades in joining two wooden pieces at a 90-degree angle. It is quite simple to make, and it involves inserting one end of the wood to a hole in another piece of wood. The tenon refers to the end of the first piece of wood. The mortise refers to the hole found in the second piece of wood. When done right, it fits perfectly and is incredibly strong, but this flush fitting design is quite difficult to master. Woodworkers would usually use glue to reinforce the joint.
This woodworking joint is popular with woodworkers, most especially with furniture makers. It is also known as the pocket-screw joinery as it uses screws to join the wood pieces. It is quite similar to the basic Butt Joint but with Pocket Hole screws, which means drilling two holes using two different sized drill bits. It takes a bit of practice, and there are certain rules to follow to properly make one, which includes setting the correct pocket depth, using a corded drill instead of a cordless one as it bores a cleaner hole, and clearing the chips by stopping halfway down when drilling to lessen the friction. Check the pocket-hole screw guide chart to ensure you are using the appropriate screws to match the thickness of the material.
One of the most common joints that can be found in the kitchen cabinets is the Rabbet Joint. Its name is taken from an old French word, “rabbat,” which means “a recess into a wall.” It is quite popular due to its easy construction as it can be cut by hand or a table saw.
Woodworkers also consider the joint to have a fairly strong quality as long as screws, nails, or even dowels are used to reinforce the glue that is used to attach the pieces. This woodworking joint is also often found in bookcases, door casings, and some window frames.
In the single rabbet joint, only one wood piece is rabbeted or cut, forming a recess, and the thickness of the mating piece should be proportional to the depth (step) of the wood that was cut out to make an accurate fit. The wood can be cut either way as the wood grain can appear on either end. In the double-rabbet joint, both mating wood pieces are cut or rabbeted with the depth and thickness of the cut matching or fitting well to make a flush fit.
Some refer to it as scarph joint, a type of woodworking joinery that uses a method of putting together the ends of two pieces when the wood is not large enough to provide the required length needed in your project. It is a means to elongate the wood by joining overlapping pieces of wood in the same direction of the grain using a flush fitting design.
There are several ways to construct scarf woodworking joints, and not all of them can offer sufficient strength. Woodworkers would use a plain scarf for decorative correction and reinforce the glue with nails, screws, or mechanical fasteners. Sanding it properly afterward is a required step to level the flat surfaces before coating it with paint. However, a more complex scarf joint is preferred for projects that need a higher degree of strength, particularly for those sections in a big construction project that are not in line with each other.
Tongue and Groove Joints
It is a simple wood joining method which consists of two planks of wood with one piece having a slot or groove cut along its edge to match the ridge or tongue on the other edge. With the right cut and appropriate thickness, the edge-to-edge joint will fit perfectly. In the past, it was often used on huge tabletops, flooring, and paneling. This was mostly used pre-plywood era although some woodworkers still use this method for those with higher-quality boards.
Woodworking is a serious business; it is not something you can just do on the spot without properly planning the execution. To ensure the stability and longevity of the end product, it is extremely important to know your woodworking options to be able to use the most appropriate one and to learn how to do the joint accurately and adequately. Keep in mind that the durability and strength of the whole structure would depend highly on the joinery technique that you used.
When working on any woodworking joint, it is important to remember the following pointers:
- Before making the joint, it is advisable to look into the other parts of the wooden construction. Take into consideration the load of the weight of the whole thing and the joint that should be used to fully support it. Clearly, the external weight can directly affect the effectivity of the woodworking joint.
- Never forget that the wood can easily contract or expand when there is a change in the surrounding climate.
- Do not only focus on the wood material and the type of woodworking joint you will apply, but take time to choose appropriate glue and mechanical fasteners to perfectly match each type of joint.